（1） Common light position of stage lighting
In order to do a good job in the allocation of professional stage lamps, we must first know the common light position of stage lamps, which is an important link in the correct selection of stage lamps.
1. Surface light: the light from the top of the audience to the stage. Its primary function is the lighting of the front of the characters and the lighting of the whole stage.
2. Slap on the face: it is located at the two ends of the stage. It is divided into upper and lower layers. The surface light is mainly used to enhance the facial lighting and enhance the three-dimensional sense of characters and phenomena.
3. Column light (also known as side light): the light projected from the two ends of the platform mouth is mainly used for lighting the two sides of characters and phenomena to increase the sense of three-dimensional and induction.
4. Top light: the light cast onto the stage from the top of the stage, from front to back, is divided into a row of top lights, two rows of top lights, three rows of top lights, etc. it is mainly used for the general lighting of the stage to increase the stage illumination, and there are many phenomena and fixed-point lighting of props.
5. Backlight: the light projected from the opposite direction of the stage (such as the top light, bridge light, etc.), can outline the induction of characters and phenomena, enhance the sense of three-dimensional and transparency, and can also be used as a specific light source.
6. Bridge light: the light cast to the stage at the overpasses at both ends of the stage is mainly used to assist the column light and enhance the three-dimensional sense. It is also used for other light positions where it is not easy to project. It can also be used as a specific light source
7. Foot light: the light projected from the stage board in front of the platform to the stage is mainly used to assist the surface lighting and eliminate the shadow caused by the face light and other high-level illumination of the character's face and jaw.
8. Six way arrangement of light: the light cast from the top and bottom of the sky curtain to the sky screen is mainly used for lighting and color change of the sky screen.
9. Movable light: it is located on the movable lamp stand at both ends of the stage, which is mainly used to assist bridge light and compensate for the light at both ends of the stage and other specific lights.
10. Light tracking: the light position needed from the auditorium or other positions is mainly used to track a certain light played by an actor or excellent performance, and also used for the host. It is a close-up of stage art and plays a self defeating role.
（2） Common lamps and features
1. Spotlight: it is one of the most widely used primary lamps in stage lighting. As the primary light source of the stage, it is often used for surface light, ear light, side light and other light positions.
2. Soft light lamp: the light is soft and symmetrical, which can not only be excellent, but also has no hard spot, which is convenient for several lamps to connect. It is often used in near spaced optical positions such as column light and active light.
3. Return light: it is a kind of reflective lamp, which is characterized by hard light quality, high illumination and long range. It is an economical and efficient strong light lamp.
4. Astigmatism lamp: the light is diffuse, symmetrical, and has a large projection area. It can be divided into sky lighting and floor lighting. It is often used for lighting the sky curtain or the stage of a theater.
5. Exterior light: the principle is between the rear light and the spotlight. It is a kind of special lamp, which is mainly used for the appearance projection of people and phenomena.
6. Foot light lamp (also known as strip lamp): soft light and wide area. It is mainly used as setting light and color for medium view and net view, and can also assist surface lighting at the entrance.
7. Light column lamp (also known as downlight): it was widely used at that time. It could be used for lighting people and phenomena in all directions, and it could also be directly installed on the stage, exposed to the audience, forming a lamp array for stage decoration and lighting.
8. Projection slide and sky screen function lamp: it can form a whole picture on the stage sky screen, and various extra functions, such as wind, rain, thunder, electricity, water, fire, smoke, cloud, etc.
9. Computer lamp: This is a kind of intelligent lamp controlled by DMX512 or RS232 or PMX signal. Its light color, spot and illuminance are better than the above conventional lamps. It is a kind of intelligent lamp which has been rapidly developed in recent years. The equipment is usually in the direction of surface light, top light, stage and background stage, and the color, shape and diagram of its operation can be programmed. Due to the difference of power size and size, it should be used differently on the stage. Usually low power computer light, only suitable for Ballroom use. On the stage, the small power computer lamp fire line, spot is often diluted by the stage spotlight, return light, so in the selection to pay special attention.
It is clear that the brightness of the light spot can be changed by using the light spot of the stage. There are movable light bars, easy to change color, lamp body can operate freely, etc. At that time, there were many kinds of shopping malls, and there were different ways to mark the target. The power standards were: 1kW tungsten halogen light source, 1kW metal halide light source, 2kW metal halide light source, etc., and there were also tracking lights (light intensity and illumination under specific interval) based on interval standard, such as 8-10m chasing light, 15-30m chasing light, 30-50m chasing light, 50-80 chasing light, etc Mechanical light, its focus, light bar, color change are manual end; the other is computer tracking light, its focus, light bar, color change, color temperature adjustment are automatically completed by pushing and pulling electrical appliances, so we must carefully select various targets when selecting.
（3） Stage light color changer
The description and implementation of color changer greatly simplifies the number of stage lamps and lanterns, reduces the labor intensity of lamp operators, and saves the amount of investment. Therefore, it is an indispensable equipment for the current stage equipment. At present, there are mainly mechanical color changers and spot and color changers in shopping malls.
1. Stage mechanical color changer: its description is simple and the price is low. It is a mainstream commodity in the mid-1980s-1990s, which is close to screening at present.
2. Stage computer color changer: Recent